|The enamel used to coat the railings and exterior portions of Yu Yuan is a thick, smooth paste. It is applied with a spatula and in a skilled hand dries to a seamless glossy finish.
Yu Yuan did not remain a static entity once it left the ownership of the Pan family. Even if it had stayed within the family, it would have changed as each generation added buildings, modified gardens, and adapted it to new family members and businesses.
One of the amazing features of Yu Yuan is how much was kept through the centuries perhaps because people recognized the beauty created by Pan Yunduan and Zhang Nanyang. We have already seen one building built in 1760 by the Chinese grain merchants, others continued to be added to the garden during the 1800's.
China Index >> History of Shanghai and Suzhou Region >> Yu Yuan
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Last update: February 2007
© Marilyn Shea 1996, 1999, 2002, 2007