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Neolithic Era 

ʯ ʱ

Xin1shi2qi4 Shi2dai4

Travis

again, once more; to repeat, to duplicate  (combined with other verbs it means to repeat the action)

chong2

Zhang MengLiu XiaoyunHuang XuCao Lihua
AshleyJeremyLynnNick

bronze arrowhead  (from Warring States on)

ͭ

tong2 zu2

Lynn

bone arrowhead 

gu3 zu2

CeCelia

bone awl handle 

׶

gu3 zhui1 bing3

CeCelia

battle-axe, dagger axe 

yue4

Travis

battle axe (ancient) 

P

qi1yang2

Travis

axe (ancient), relative, relative on mother's side, sorrow  (qi1 is an zancient axe, see fu3zi for the modern version)

qi1

Travis

rustic axe, village axe (ancient) 

xiang1 qi1

Travis

frog decorated battle-axe 

wa1 wen2 yue4

Travis

axle 

ԯ

che1yuan2

Lynn

bow bag, bow sack 

gong1 nang2

Travis

Ban Liang coin, half liang coin (liang - about 50 grams) 

Ǯ

ban4liang3qian2

Sarah GChelsea

barbarian 

Ұ

ye3man2ren2

grave guardian beast (ancient) 

Ĺ

zhen4mu4shou4

Travis

bei, water cup (ancient)  (ancient cup, term still in use today, tall with narrower base and wide mouth, may have side rings, Warring States period)

bei1

Sarah GChelsea

beizhu, ancient coin container  (simplified characters - used to hold cowrie shells which were used as an early form of currency, later used for bronze coins)

bei4zhu4

Sarah GChelsea

beizhu, ancient coin container  (traditional characters - used to hold cowrie shells which were used as an early form of currency, later used for bronze coins)

ؐ A

bei4zhu4

Sarah GChelsea

bronze chime bell 

ͭ

tong2 bian1zhong1

Lynn

official's bell (ancient) 

ʦ ة

shi2cheng2 zhong1

Lynn

bronze belt ornament, bronze belt buckle  (these were not buckles in the modern sense - they don't have the prong and hole device - but were worn in the same manner)

ͭ

tong2 dai4shi4

Travis

jade bi, jade disk with a hole in the center (ancient ritual object) 

bi4yu4

Travis

jade bi 

yu4 bi4

CeCelia

bi, circlet, ring, annulus (flat round circle with a hole in the center, often made of jade) 

bi4

CeCelia

bit (horse), mouthpiece 

ma3xian2

Lynn

divining bone 

ռ

zhan1bu3 gu3

Travis

account book, ledger 

zhang4bu4

Travis

amphora, bottle with a pointed bottom 

ƿ

jian1 di3 ping2

CeCelia

calabash, gourd shaped bottle 

« ƿ

hu2lu ping2

CeCelia

geometric design colored pottery bowl 

ji3he2 wen2 cai3 tao2 bo1

CeCelia

three-legged bowl (usually clay) 

san1 zu2 bo1

CeCelia

square brick 

ש

fang1 zhuan1

Travis

geometric patterned brick 

ש

ji3he2 wen2 fang1 zhuan1

Sarah GChelsea

bronze (actually qing1tong2 is bronze, but tong2 is used if it is clear it is bronze) 

ͭ

tong2

Travis

bronze 

ͭ

qing1tong2

Travis

bu, covered round belly pot  (sacrificial vessel for millet wine, also called weng, from Shang dynasty)

bu4

Lynn

incense burner 

¯

xiang1lu2

Travis

cicada 

chan2

Travis

clam, mussel, clam shell 

bang4

Lynn

gold coin 

jin1bi2

Sarah GChelsea

cooking, culinary arts 

peng1ren4

CeCelia

counting sticks  (marked sticks used in accounting and record keeping - from Han dynasty - replaced by abacus)

suan4chou2

Travis

ivory counting sticks 

xiang4ya2 suan4chou2

Travis

Lintong County (district of Xi'an) 

Lin2tong2 Xian4

CeCelia

cross bow 

nu3

cross bow 

ʮ

shi2zi4 gong1

crossbow mechanism 

nu3ji1

Travis

Laoguantai Culture (between 7 and 8 thousand years ago - Neolithic) 

̨

Lao3guan1tai2 Wen2hua4

CeCelia

bronze cup 

ͭ

tong2 bei1

Travis

handleless cup (ancient) 

zhong1

Lynn

double-handled cup, two eared cup  (When the handles are even with the ridge or protrude above the top< they are often called ears)

˫

shuang1 er3 bei1

Travis

currency, money 

huo4bi4

Huang XuZhao HeZhang MengZhao Mo
AprilJamesBrian

curved design, flourishes, curlicue 

lian2hu2

Sarah GChelsea

dagger, ladle, ancient type of flat spoon 

ذ

bi3

CeCelia

decoration, ornament; to decorate, to adorn, to conceal (a fault) 

shi4

Lynn

Di, (northern ethnic groups during Qin and Han dynasties) 

Di4

bronze ding (three-legged cauldron) 

ͭ

tong2 ding3

Lynn

pottery ding, (pottery three-legged open mouthed vessel) 

tao2 ding3

CeCelia

cicada decorated ding, cicada decorated cooking pot 

chan2 wen2 ding3

Travis

cloud decorated ding, thunder decorated ding 

lei2 wen2 ding3

CeCelia

ogre mask decorated ding 

tao1tie4 wen2 ding3

CeCelia

one-legged monster decorated ding 

kui2 wen2 ding3

CeCelia

dipper, spoon 

shao2

CeCelia

to divine 

ռ

zhan1bu3

Travis

dou, ancient pedestal server  (like a cake display server - domed fitted cover and tall stem)

dou4

Lynn

openwork dou, ancient pedestal server with openwork design  (flat plate with a standing lip supported by a stem, sacrificial vessel that after Shang period often had a dome cover)

lou4kong1 dou4

Lynn

coiled hornless dragons (often used in decoration in ancient times) 

pan2 chi1

Sarah GChelsea

dui, food container  (egg shaped pot with handles to open it at the center - from late Spring and Autumn times to Qin dynasty - the character is usually dun1)

dui

Lynn

rammed earth, adobe, mud brick 

ban3zhu4

CeCelia

defensive enclosure around a gate, enceinte of a city gate, barbican entrance to a city 

weng4cheng2

to engrave, to inscribe 

juan1

food processing equipment 

ʳ

liang2shi4 jia1gong1 gong1ju4

Lynn

erbei, wine heater  (gets its name from the large handles or ears on either side - ancient footed bowl, fire beneath the bowl heated the wine)

er3bei1

Sarah GChelsea

Erlitou culture (centered near Luoyang and along Wei River, early Bronze Age around 2000 BC) 

ͷ

Er4li3tou wen2hua4

CeCelia

fanggu, square goblet, wine vessel  (similar to a gu, but squared)

fang1gu1

Lynn

kneeling figure (funerary object) 

ٸ

ji4zuo4 tao2yong3

Sarah GChelsea

painted figurine of a kneeling woman (funerary object) 

Ů ٸ

cai3hui4 ji4zuo4 nu~3 yong3

Lynn

pottery figure, (funerary object buried in tombs) 

ٸ

tao2yong3

Sarah GChelsea

figure of a man carrying a shield (funerary object) 

ٸ

bao4 dun4 nan2 yong3

Lynn

standing female figure (used as a burial object) 

Ů ٸ

nu~3 li4 yong3

Lynn

slender-necked flask, slender-necked pot 

ϸ

xi4 jing3 hu2

CeCelia

fou, squared storage vessel (ancient)  (pottery or bronze from the late Shang)

fou3

Sarah GChelsea

fu, ancient pedestal server  (flat plate supported by a single leg or pedestal, the stem is shorter than a dou4)

fu

Lynn

fu, bronze or basket food container  (squarish, squat belly, covered, early Zhou to Warring States)

fu3

Lynn

fu, cauldron, caldron, kettle  (common pot since the early Shang)

fu3

Sarah GChelsea

wooden or pottery funerary object, wooden or pottery object buried with the dead 

ٸ

yong3

Lynn

Funerary objects were placed in tombs to accompany the person into the next world. 

Ʒ Ĺ Ѩ һ

Sui2zang4 pin3 shi4 zai4 ling4 yi2 ge shi4jie1 pei2 ban4 si2zhe3 de qi4min3.

Travis

ge, axe, ax 

ge1

CeCelia

dragon head axe 

long2shou3 wen2 ge1

CeCelia

green glaze 

lu~4you4

Travis

green glaze 

qing1 you4

Travis

brown glaze, dark grey brown glaze 

he4 you4

Travis

colored glaze, colored glass 

liu2li2

Travis

brown glaze 

jiang4 you4

Travis

heavenly god, god 

tian1wang1

Travis

outlined in gold 

miao2jin1

Travis

gong, wine cup (ancient)  (elongated, shaped like an animal, cover extends the length of the cup, from late Shang)

gong1

Sarah G

bottle shaped gourd (has two bulbous areas separated by an indented area) 

«

hu2lu

CeCelia

food, cereals, grains 

ʳ

liang2shi4

Lynn

pottery granary  (often used as furary objects)

tao2 jun1

Sarah GChelsea

to grind, to mill, to abrade; whetstone, grindstone 

ĥ

yan2mo2

CeCelia

gu, goblet, wine vessel  (slim wine mug, no handles, narrow body widens at the top like a vase - from early Shang to Western Zhou)

gu1

Lynn

guan, carrying pot with handle (ancient)  (looks like a jar, may have cover, from late Shang)

guan4

Sarah GChelsea

gui, ancient bronze food vessel with a large round mouth and two or four handles, bamboo basket 

gui2

Lynn

gui (three-legged wine container with handle) 

k

tao2 gui1

CeCelia

Hakka (ethnic group of south China)  (Originating from the north of Chia, the Hakka are identified with both the Han ethnic group and the early Xiongnu tribes of the north. During the Jin Dynasty (265-420) began first migration south - and several more later during the Tang, Song, and Yuan)

Ke4jia1

measure word for knives and blades 

bing3

CeCelia

handle, shaft, stem 

bing3

CeCelia

to hang down, to droop, to dangle, to bend down, to approach, to hand down, to bequeath; nearly. almost, 

chui2

CeCelia

he, ancient water container  (has cover without a knob, very long pipe-like spout, and the legs swell as they meet the round body)

B

he2

Lynn

modern history 

ʷ

jin4dai4shi3

Hu (the Hu were foreigners from the Han point of view - they include many peoples with different traditions, during Shang found throughout China, later in the North and West) 

Hu2

Travis

Wu Hu, five Hu peoples (ancient)  (five non-Han people: Huns or Xiongnu, Xianbei. Jie, Di, Qiang - hu means beard and also unintelligible - refers to Mongol languages)

Wu3 Hu2

Travis

Hu, Hu person, Hu people  (non-Han people - usually from central Asiz - hu2 also means beard)

Hu2ren2

Travis

bird lid gourd hu, bottle shaped like a gourd with a stopper shaped like a bird  (the Chinese is more efficient than the English!)

niao3 gai4 hu4 hu2

Lynn

hu, covered wine vessel  (tall, has a carrying handle, different shapes, some have narrow necks, character is traditional and looks like the bottle - simplified form means "pot" today - late Shang to Warring States)

( )

hu2

Sarah GChelsea

farm implements 

ũ

nong2ju4

Lynn

incense burner table 

xiang1'an4

Lynn

sickle shaped instrument (weapon) 

lian2 xing2 qi4

Travis

wine holding item 

ʢ Ʒ

cheng2 jiu3 pin3

CeCelia

ivory  (elephant tooth)

xiang4ya2

Travis

This jade artifact is dated to the Neolithic Period. It was found when the factory was built. 

׷ ʯ ʱ ʱ

Zhe4 ge4 yu4qi4 ke3yi3 zhui1su4 dao4 Xin1shi2qi4 Shi2dai4. Jian4 chang3 shi2 zhao3dao4 de.

jade artifact 

yu4qi4

pottery jar with a folded belly 

zhe2 fu4 guan4

CeCelia

long necked jar 

gao1 ling3 guan4

CeCelia

three-legged jar 

san1 zu2 guan4

CeCelia

jasper, fine jade 

qiong2

Lynn

jasper bi, irregularly shaped round bi 

yu4xuan2ji1

Lynn

jia, (small cup for wine with handles and large knobs or ears on the top) 

jia1

CeCelia

phoenix pillar jia, jia with phoenix birds on the ears or knobs 

feng4 zhu4 jia1

Travis

jian, a water basin (ancient)  (two traditional characters both mean the same thing and have same pronunciation - from Spring and Autumn period - large basin to hold water - character later meant mirror - reflect)

b

jian4

Sarah GChelsea

jian, a water basin (ancient)  (two traditional characters both mean the same thing and have same pronunciation - from Spring and Autumn period - large basin to hold water - character later meant mirror - reflect)

a

jian4

Sarah GChelsea

Jiangzhai (Neolithic village near Xi'an) 

կ

Jiang1zhai4

CeCelia

jihu, wine drinking vessel (ancient)  (same as hu)

( )

ji2hu2

Sarah GChelsea

jin, wine tray (ancient)  (large flat tray with legs to hold wine cups or jars, often highly decorated for ceremonial purposes)

jin1

Sarah GChelsea

jue, wine vessel with three legs  (ancient cup similar to a jue - but this one has a cover and usually both spouts are even)

jue2

Lynn

jue, wine vessel  (three-legged with looped handles, snake knobs or ears and elongated pouring spout)

jue2

CeCelia

water dragon decorated jue 

ling2long2 wen2 jue2

CeCelia

boat shaped jug 

chuan2 xing2 hu2

CeCelia

Jurchen (ruled northwest China, Manchuria, from the 900's and established the Jin Dynasty (1115?C1234) )  (the Jurchens were defeated by the Mongols who set up the Yuan Dynasty. The Jurchen retreated to their Manchurian homelands and later reconquered China to extablish the Qing Dynasty 1644C1912)

Ů

Nu~3zhen1

Khitan, (people from Mongolia 700 ~ 1300)  (people from Mongolia who conquered nothern China and established the Liao Dynasty (907-1124)

Qi4dan1

brick kiln 

Ҥ

yao2chang3

CeCelia

brick kiln 

ש Ҥ

zhuan1yao2

CeCelia

brick kiln 

ש Ҥ

zhuan1yao2chang3

CeCelia

pottery kiln 

Ҥ

tao2yao2

Lynn

kneeling (sitting on the heels with the knees on the ground) 

ji4zuo4

Lynn

bronze door knocker plate (ancient)  (The decorative plate behind a door knocker is called a pu1 - the same character as a pedestal ceremonial vessel called a "fu" - door knockers often had lions, mythical beasts, and dragons as protection for the house)

ͭ

tong2 pu1

Lynn

to kowtow, to kneel and worship 

gui4bai4

Travis

Kui design  (Kui is a mythical creature often symbolized on ancient items - one foot and one horn dragon design)

Kui2 long2 wen2

Lynn

kui, (one-legged monster who invented music and dancing - rain god) 

kui2

CeCelia

lei, wine storage vessel (ancient)  (bronze or earthenware, most often rectangular vase shaped with cover)

lei2

Sarah GChelsea

bronze li, three-legged bronze cooking jar  (three-legged cooking vessel is called a li. It has hollow legs that allow the liquids in the pot to have more surface area exposed to the fire)

ͭ ت

tong2 li4

Travis

pottery li, pottery cauldron, pottery caldron  (three-legged cooking vessel is called a li. It has hollow legs that allow the liquids in the pot to have more surface area exposed to the fire)

ت

tao2 li4

CeCelia

li, cauldron, caldron  (three hollow legs, large body, open mouth, used for cooking)

ت

li4

CeCelia

Lijia (pre-dynastic Zhou era culture of the Wei River Valley) 

Li3jia1

Lynn

line, mark, stripe, decoration; decorated with 

wen2

CeCelia

ling, wide bodied jar  (covered, may have handles and rings, character is traditional)

ling2

Sarah GChelsea

ling, wide bodied jar  (covered, may have handles and rings, character is simplified form, but will more often see traditional form used to describe this pot)

ling2

Sarah GChelsea

double six magic square steel plate (math puzzle)  (Iron plate is inscribed with Arabic numbers in a six by six grid. plates were buried in the corner of the foundation to ward off evil spirits. If you add any of the columns or any of the rows, the total will be 111.)

huan4fang1 tie3ban3

Travis

Dali man (180,000 and 230,000 years ago) 

Da4li4 ren2

Lantian man (1,150,000 years ago) 

Lan2tian2 ren2

CeCelia

building material 

jian4zhu4cai2 liao4

Lynn

nebula, star and cloud (common ancient design) 

xing1yun2

Lynn

millstone, grindstone 

ʯ ĥ

shi2mo4

Lynn

mirror, reflection; to view, to reflect, to inspect; ancient bronze mirror 

jian4

Sarah GChelsea

bronze mirror 

ͭ

tong2 jing4

Sarah GChelsea

moat, river outside the walls of a city 

hu4cheng2he2

to model a figure in clay, to sculpt in clay 

su4

CeCelia

coin mold, money mold, coin form  (During the Western Han Dynasty the "zhu" was a standard of weight which was equivalent to about .66 grams. In 118 BC the "five zhu" or Wu Zhu coins were cast. )

Ǯ

qian2fan4

Lynn

stone coin mold 

Ǯ ʯ

qian2 shi2fan4

Lynn

bronze coin mold 

Ǯ ͭ

qian2 tong2fan4

Lynn

cowrie shell money 

bei4bi4

Lynn

The Neolithic Era was between 10 thousand and 5 thousand years ago. 

ʯ ʱ ǧ һ ֮

Xin1shi2qi4 shi2dai4 zai4 wu3qian1 nian2 dao4 yi1wan4 nian2 zhi1jian4.

Travis

decorative object 

shi4jian4

Travis

civil official, minor official (ancient) 

wen2li4

Travis

civil official (ancient) 

wen2guan1

Travis

ogre mask design, zoomorphic mask motif (common from the Shang dynasty onward) 

tao1tie4 wen2

CeCelia

ornament 

װ Ʒ

zhuang1shi4pin3

Lynn

ornaments on chariot shafts (ancient) 

mu4

Ox-Head clam shell decoration 

ţ ͷ

Niu2 Tou2 bang4 shi4

Lynn

Ox-Head  (one of the guardians of the underworld - ancient Chinese myth)

ţ ͷ

Niu2 Tou2

Lynn

paint, pigment, dye 

yan2liao4

CeCelia

painted 

cai3hui4

Lynn

paixiao, xiao, pan pipe  (has five or more pipes and is blown from the bottom, not directly)

pai2xiao1

Travis

Paleolithic Era 

ʯ ʱ

Jiu4shi2qi4 Shi2dai4

Travis

pan, flat basin for washing hands (ancient)  (ancient implement dating from Shang dynasty, traditional character shown, simplified is still in use today to mean dish or pan)

P

pan2

Sarah GChelsea

bronze parts 

ͭ

tong2 gou4jian4

Lynn

distant past, ancient times, early historical times 

shang4gu3

lotus pattern 

lian2hua1 wen2

Travis

green glazed pottery pig pen (funerary object)  (pig pens were common subjects for clay figures of ordinary life buried with the dead)

Ȧ

lu~4you4 tao2 zhu1juan4

Travis

to pierce, to perforate, to bore through, to thread, to pass through 

chuan1

pillar, post, column, peg, stem 

zhu4

Travis

porcelain pillow (ancient) 

ci2 zhen3

Travis

pottery pitcher 

B

tao2 he2

CeCelia

silver plate, plane of the universe 

yin2pan2

Travis

to play (wind instruments, horns, flutes, pipes) 

chui1zou4

Travis

bronze plowshare, bronze spade 

ͭ

tong2 hua2

Lynn

iron plowshare, iron spade (ancient) 

tie3 hua2

Travis

jour-joked points, puncture weapon  (points that look like children's jacks that were scattered to injure the hooves of horses during battle - named after a vine with sharp barbs the ޼ ji4li4 - around the Han Dynasty)

޼

tie3 ji2li2

Travis

point, tip, top; pointed, acute, high pitched, sharp 

jian1

Zhang MengZhang LiLi ZhenShu ChangSun Gang
ScribMal

porcelain, chinaware 

ci2

Travis

portrait; to portray 

hua4xiang4

Lynn

ogre mask and hanging leaf decorated pot 

Ҷ

tao1tie4 chui2 ye4 wen2 hu2

CeCelia

pottery 

fou3

Sarah GChelsea

pottery 

tao2

CeCelia

pottery model of a man's head 

ͷ

tao2 su3 ren2tou xiang4

CeCelia

to process; processing 

jia1gong1

Lynn

reconstruction, restoration, model; to restore, to recover 

ԭ

fu4yuan2

Travis

reproduction, copy, replica 

Ʒ

fu4zhi4pin3

Lynn

ring, link; to surround, to encircle 

huan2

Shao DanniZhang NingZhang LiCao HuiShu Chang
KenJenniferJeremy

wine sack, wine skin (an ancient type of soft container for wine) 

nang2hu2

CeCelia

oracle script, shell and bone writing  (The script used to engrave shells and bones with predictions. It also refers to a special script or font that imitates the curves but uses modern characters.)

jia3gu3wen2

pottery figure of a man's face 

tao2 ren2mian4 xiang4

Travis

seal 

ӡ

yin4

Travis

imperial seal, ruler's seal 

xi3

Lynn

bronze seal 

ͭ ӡ

tong2 yin4

Travis

jade seal 

yu4 xi3

Lynn

coiled serpent decoration 

pan2hui3 wen2

Lynn

mythical venomous snake or serpent 

hui3

Lynn

shape, appearance, impression; to resemble, to look like, to look as if, to seem 

xiang4

Zhang MengLiu JinzheZhu MengxiWang MeiMi ZhaoxiZhao He
FredMillieMikeApril

sheep-tiger  (mythical combination animal used for decoration in ancient times)

yang2hu3

Lynn

archaeological site, ruins, historic relics 

ַ

yi2zhi3

Sarah GChelsea

sluice, gate, circuit breaker, lock (waterway) 

բ

zha4

snake head decoration 

she2shou3 wen2

CeCelia

jade spade 

yu4 chan3

CeCelia

to level off, to root up, to shovel, to remove; spade, shovel 

chan3

CeCelia

bone spade 

gu3 chan3

CeCelia

stone spade 

ʯ

shi2chan3

CeCelia

spear, lance 

ì

mao2

Du FengDeng YichenWang ChenZhou HuiRen Shuang
Ann

long Hu four-holed halberd  (the Hu were foreigners from the Han point of view - they include many peoples with different traditions, usually from the North)

chang2 Hu2 si4 chuan1 ge1

Travis

spiral, spirals, coil; to coil 

pan2

Lynn

stone engraving, engraved stone 

ʯ

shi2diao1

CeCelia

intellectual, scholar, student (archaic) 

shu1sheng1

subject (of a kingdom or ruler, monarchy), liege subject 

chen2min2

to succeed the throne; succession 

λ

ji2wei4

CeCelia

tally  (used to verify messages by splitting in half and giving one half to each person)

fu2

Sarah GChelsea

tiger tally  (used to send dispatches to generals)

hu3fu2

Sarah GChelsea

temple, shrine, monastery (Buddhist) 

ɲ

cha4

Mingtang Piyong Imperial Ancestral Temple and University  (The Biyong or Piyong was the central of the five Zhou dynasty royal academies)

Ӻ

Ming2tang2 Bi4yong1

Chelsea

double-ring decorated eaves tile 

chong2huan2 wen2 wa3dang1

Lynn

large roof tile with an interior single pin 

nei4 dan1 ding1 da4 ban3wa3

Lynn

roof tile, roof plate 

ban3wa3

Lynn

large roof tile with exterior double pins 

˫

wai4 shuang1 ding1 da4 ban3wa3

Lynn

eaves tile, end tile 

wa3dang1

Lynn

to cover, to top, to surpass, to seal; cover 

gai4

Jessie WangZhang MengLi ZhenCao Hui
FredApril

arrow tower  (An external defense building for gates in Chinese cities designed to have lots of small windows facing toward the enemy. Often built along walls with external moats.)

¥

jian4lou2

to uncover, to excavate 

zhe2chu2

underside, bottom, base, ins and outs, rough draft 

di3

Shao DanniZhang NingZhang LiCao HuiShu Chang
AustinStephan

container to hold food, food container 

ʢ ʳ

cheng2 shi4 qi4

CeCelia

wine drinking vessel, wine drinking utensil 

yin3jiu3 qi4

Lynn

grinding utensil, grinding stone, whetstone 

ĥ

yan2mo2qi4

CeCelia

cooking vessel 

chui1qi4

CeCelia

cooking vessel, culinary vessel 

peng1ren4 qi4

CeCelia

zun, wine vessel with a wide opening and flat bottom, (early Shang to modern) 

zun1

Travis

water vessel, water vase 

ˮ

shui3qi4

CeCelia

drum shaped vessel (usually Neolithic) 

gu3 xing2 qi4

CeCelia

goat decorated zun, goat decorated wine vessel  (Although yang1 usually means sheep and shan1yang2 means goat, museum notation often refers to goat as simply yang2 - on ancient vessels, goats are more likely to be depicted.)

yang2 zun1

Travis

ritual object, ritual vessel, sacrificial dish 

li3qi4

CeCelia

wine vessel 

jiu3 qi4

CeCelia

village, town, countryside, rustic. provincial, hometown, native place; to face toward, ahead of, before 

xiang1

Travis

mounted warrior (ancient) 

ʿ

qi2ma3 wu3shi4

Travis

warrior, samurai (ancient) 

ʿ

wu3shi4

Travis

flags, ceremonial weaponry, weapons carried by a guard of honor, insignia carried before the emperor 

yi2zhang4

Travis

weaponry, weapon, arms, military instrument 

bing1qi4

Travis

weighing apparatus 

heng2qi4

Sarah GChelsea

bronze and stone weights 

ͭ ʯ Ȩ

tong2 shi2 quan2

Sarah GChelsea

iron weight 

Ȩ

tie3 quan2

Sarah GChelsea

weng, covered round belly pot  (also called a bu4, pottery or bronze, from Shang dynasty)

weng4

Lynn

gold wuzhu coin (ancient)  (During the Western Han Dynasty the "zhu" was a standard of weight which was equivalent to about .66 grams. In 118 BC the "five zhu" or Wu Zhu coins were cast. )

jin1 wu3zhu1

Lynn

Xiongnu, nomadic people (ancient - 3rd century BC ~ 460 AD) 

ū

Xiong1nu2

Travis

xu, food container  (long food covered footed food vessel from late Western Zhou to Warring States)

S

xu3

Lynn

yan, pot and stand  (combination of li which held hot water to heat the liquid in the zeng or pot on top of the li - early Shang to Spring and Autumn period)

[

yan3

Lynn

Yangshao culture (Neolithic culture centered around the Wei River - 5000-3000 BC) 

Yang3shao2 wen2hua4

CeCelia

yi, wine vessel (ancient)  (sacrificial vessel with elaborate ornaments - filigree in bronze - Shang to Western Zhou)

yi2

Sarah GChelsea

yi, footed water pourer (ancient)  (looks like a gravy boat - from the Western Zhou period)

F

yi2

Sarah GChelsea

Ying (ancient capital of Chu in Jianling, Hubei) 

۫

Ying3

Sarah GChelsea

ying, ancient water container  (similar to a "he" but smaller, shorter spout, and the lid has decorative knob or sculpture - generally bronze)

ying2

Lynn

yinhu, wine drinking vessel  (same as hu)

( )

yin3hu2

Sarah GChelsea

you, wine container (has a handle and a lid, commonly tall, but can be fat and round, from early Shang on) 

you3

Travis

yu, basin, wide mouth jar  (bowl shaped with handles from late Shang to Spring and Autumn)

yu2

Lynn

Zhengjiapo  (pre-dynastic Zhou era culture of the Wei River Valley)

֣

Zheng4jia1po1

Lynn

zhi, covered wine goblet (rounded cover, body can be round or flat, indented in the middle, late Shang to Spring and Autumn period) 

( z )

zhi4

Sarah GChelsea

zhong, pottery zhong, (pottery vase with large bulbous base and long narrow neck) 

tao2zhong1

Travis

zu, sacrificial table  (small stand for offering meat - Shang to Western Zhou dynasties)

zu3

Lynn




http://hua.umf.maine.edu/Chinese/topics/topics.html
Last Update: July 2012
©  Marilyn Shea 1999, 2001, 2004, 2008, 2012